Team of Laboratorio di Scienze della Cittadinanza (LSC) provided feedback on the linkages between empowerment practices and specific socio-economic and environmental contexts as part of the second task under Work Package 7 'Citizens Empowerment'.
The LSC Team has tried to identify from the literature review and from the analysis of 25 practices of people empowerment in Europe (plus some other practices elsewhere), the social, economic and environmental factors that can affect empowerment processes related to disaster management.
76 factors have been identified related to 11 categories:
- Demographic/health conditions
- Presence/absence of specific actors
- Individual behaviours
- Social integration, social cohesion, marginalisation and poverty
- Regulatory framework
- Institutional and community governance
- Educational and cultural conditions
- Technology and innovation
- Economic conditions
- Hazard intensity.
The factors belonging to each of these categories have been analysed, providing always some examples on where and how these factors are present (i.e., linking factors and contexts). Consequently, all the factors have been described taking into account these correlations and, therefore, some have been described alone, some others within a “set”.
Further to that, the LSC Team has first analysed the relevance of each factor with regard to their importance in the various contexts where they have been identified. The identified factors, in their relation with people empowerment (in the frame of disasters/risks), can be:
- Necessary (e.g., without these factors, either if we are missing one, it is impossible or, at least, very unlikely that any people empowerment action can happen) these factors are, implicitly or explicitly, present in all the studied cases and intrinsically linked to the essence of an empowerment process;
- Rare or of low importance for this specific report, since they are i) never or almost never considered worldwide; or ii) never or almost never considered in Europe;
- Neither necessary, nor rare.
On a mere methodological level, the first two categories of factors do not interest for the purposes of the report. The first are present (or should be present) in any socio-economic, environmental and cultural context; the latter are more or less absent (or should be) in any socio-economic, environmental and cultural context. Therefore, in the specific frame of the report, the CARISMAND interest is on the factors that are neither necessary, nor rare (at least in Europe), i.e. those factors that may or may not characterize, in Europe, each economic and social context in which people empowerment practices occur (i.e. showing the linkages between empowerment practices and specific socio-economic and environmental contexts).
There are 48 of the 76 initially identified factors that fulfil this criteria. These factors can be classified, considering the theoretical frame of the people empowerment in relation to disaster/risks management, in 5 clusters described:
- First cluster – Citizenship;
- Second cluster - Disasters risk managers and local authorities (and/or scientists);
- Third cluster - Partnership, communication and governance;
- Forth cluster - Hazards, territory, and environment;
- Fifth cluster - Specific actors.
Crossing these five clusters, WP 7 Team has built more than 30 potential scenarios. However, only 12 scenarios of people empowerment in disaster/risk management are plausible. And, if in order to simplify, the fifth cluster is considered as collateral to the first cluster (taking into account that it deal, mainly, with specific actors among citizenship), the scenarios that should be considered are 6. Each one of these six scenarios is described in details, alongside examples where it seems to be materialized among the 25 European people empowerment practices considered.
The WP 7 work concludes with some lessons learned.
More information about the report and previous WP 7 work can be found in the Deliverables Section.